Improving Wetware

Because technology is never the issue

A legal framework for automated vehicles

Posted by Pete McBreen 27 Jan 2022 at 23:01

Good news out of the UK, proposal for a new Automated Vehicle Act that transfers liability from the person in the driving seat to the “Authorised Self-Driving Entity” (ADSE) (aka the Manufacturer). The person in the driving seat becomes the “user-in-charge” (UIC), responsible for the condition of the vehicle, the ADSE is responsible for “the way the vehicle drives, ranging from dangerous or careless driving, to exceeding the speed limit or running a red light”.

Proposal also covers “no user-in-charge” (NUIC) where any occupants are merely passengers. “Responsibilities for overseeing the journey will be undertaken by an organisation, a licensed NUIC operator.”

A key new part of this idea is the prevention of misleading marketing

The distinction between driver assistance and self-driving is crucial. Yet many drivers are currently confused about where the boundary lies. This can be dangerous. This problem is aggravated if marketing gives drivers the misleading impression that they do not need to monitor the road while driving - even though the technology is not good enough to be self-driving.

An ASDE is the vehicle manufacturer or software developer who puts an AV forward for authorisation. Our proposals provide some flexibility over the identity of the ASDE: it may be a vehicle manufacturer, or a software developer, or a partnership between the two. However, the ASDE must show that it was closely involved in assessing the safety of the vehicle. It must also be of good repute and have sufficient funds to respond to regulatory action (including organising a recall).

The onus will be on the ASDE to show that the vehicle meets the tests for authorisation. As a minimum, the ASDE would be expected to present evidence of approval, a safety case and an equality impact assessment.

Obviously the devil will be in the details, but this is a massive change in the way that software is covered by the law. Most software falls under the category whereby the developers basically disclaim all responsibility for the operation of the software, but this proposed framework changes that. Even if the vehicle requests a handover to the person in the driving seat, the ASDE remains responsible if the Automated Driving System caused the issue, their example being

While in self-driving mode, an automated vehicle turns into a one-way street in the wrong direction. The user-in-charge takes over but is unable to avoid a collision. Alternatively, no collision takes place, but in the moment the user-in-charge takes over, they are driving in the wrong direction and may be guilty of an offence on that basis.

Sometimes it’s better to light a flamethrower than curse the darkness

Posted by Pete McBreen 27 Jan 2022 at 03:43

Terry Pratchett’s Discworld series has many delightful sayings and ideas, and it is nice to hear that the “Sam Vimes ‘Boots’ theory of socio-economic unfairness” has inspired some action in Roundworld, a new price index that one that

will document the disappearance of the budget lines and the insidiously creeping prices of the most basic versions of essential items at the supermarket

For those who have not heard of the ‘Boots’ theory

“The reason that the rich were so rich, Vimes reasoned, was because they managed to spend less money,” wrote Pratchett. “Take boots, for example. He earned thirty-eight dollars a month plus allowances. A really good pair of leather boots cost fifty dollars. But an affordable pair of boots, which were sort of okay for a season or two and then leaked like hell when the cardboard gave out, cost about ten dollars. Those were the kind of boots Vimes always bought, and wore until the soles were so thin that he could tell where he was in Ankh-Morpork on a foggy night by the feel of the cobbles. But the thing was that good boots lasted for years and years. A man who could afford fifty dollars had a pair of boots that’d still be keeping his feet dry in ten years’ time, while a poor man who could only afford cheap boots would have spent a hundred dollars on boots in the same time and would still have wet feet.”

When does Herd Intelligence kick in?

Posted by Pete McBreen 24 Jan 2022 at 05:12

Why is it that collectively we seem to be fawning over tech visionaries, celebrities and politicians who have no connection with reality?

  • A tweet from the end of 2018 “You can summon your Tesla from your phone. Only short distances today, but in a few years summon will work from across the continent”. – Were there any plans for unattended recharging? How was this supposed to work?
  • Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs) – finally we have a use for the blockchain that is not a ponzi scheme – Really?
  • Microservices and the Cloud – Useful at massive scale in some organizations and contexts, seem to be being adopted cargo cult fashion, by everyone, even for small scale applications. Luckily not everyone buys into this, You Don’t need the cloud.
  • Single Page Applications (SPA) – in context, occasionally useful, but for many websites the overall effect is to make the information on the webpage slower to load and harder to bookmark

If the covid pandemic has taught us anything, it is that a lot of people with an audience are absolutely clueless about the topics on which they are pontificating. On Bullshit, a book published all the way back in 2005, could usefully be required reading for our current age.

Year 15 of the five year plan to retire the mainframe

Posted by Pete McBreen 09 Jan 2022 at 00:32

I heard about this project in the early years of the Agile methodologies, another case of planning for the best case and then failing to realize that their reality check bounced. After an overrun of one or two years you would have thought that there would need to be a radical reappraisal of the approach.

Since then I have seen multiple projects which were supposedly agile that seem to have not heard of the first principle, early and continuous delivery of valuable software. One failure mode is to spend a lot of time in the project initiation activities, or gathering and documenting all requirements before starting to deliver software. Another, probably worse failure mode is to develop a framework for delivering the application, with the thought that this will make the eventual delivery of the application faster.

My take is that it is OK to invest in framework development, but not to do it as part of delivering business value in a project. The problem is similar to what used to happen in the early days of OO projects. The team would spend too much time building a framework that in the end turned out not to help the overall project, but added a lot of delivery risk.

If a company has money and people to burn, then it can make sense to either extract a framework from an existing application or speculatively create a framework. But this must be treated as an investment and must not be on the critical path for any real project until it has been proven out.

For normal projects, it is OK to spend one or two iterations at the start to build up some infrastructure and components for use, but after three iterations the project should be delivering real features to the user community. If you manage to go ten iterations without delivering customer value, the project is not agile, even if it is doing some of the agile ceremonies.

Hoping for the Best, Planning for the Worst

Posted by Pete McBreen 08 Jan 2022 at 04:58

Humans are not very good at doing this. As the last two years have proved, lots of people have hoped for the best and then planned for that best case. This has not turned out to be a very good approach.

In the good times, planning on everything turning out reasonably well and running lean with just in time deliveries can result in good return on investment and higher profits. Typically there are enough buffers in the system that small interruptions can be dealt with, so a week or two delay in shipping due to storms do not cause the system to break down.

Bigger interruptions however can cause major problems, but ideally the effect should be localized. Earthquakes obviously have a major local impact, but unless it hits a monopoly provider location, the impact should not be global. Obviously in an era of offshoring to cheaper locations, there has been a lot of concentration of industry, so the vulnerability to regional disruption is worse.

The downside to the optimization however is the lack of slack in the system. This is when planning for the best case causes problems. Hoping that a pandemic is going to fade away quickly is OK, but making plans on that assumption is not sensible based on the history to date. By now policy makers should be thinking and talking about how many more waves could occur, rather than scrambling to contain the current wave. How do we get the number of active cases in the population low enough that we can control the spread in the long term?

One effect that is starting to be seen is the effect on staffing. How organizations cope when 5% of the staff are off at any one time is a relatively solved problem, but when 25% to 35% are off there are no ready made answers.